The second phase examined here is the professionalization and differentiation of special education in the s and, during the following decade, major educational system reforms and youth unemployment. The final phase treated here is the contemporary discourse in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Importantly, after there was a remarkable continuity in special education professional practice in both Germanys—despite the different economic, political and social foundations in these countries see Poore We thus focus mostly on the early and most recent institutionalization processes.
The foundational phase marked the construction of important building blocks of professional perspectives and practices. In the s, special education was challenged to respond to change in education policies and to the demand for more integration of disabled pupils.
The contemporary period reflects professional strategies to react to on-going demands for more school integration and inclusive education see Powell Findings from internationally comparative studies of school performance e. We investigate the influences of discourses and professional knowledge on the expansion of special education and segregative school practices.
Bodily feebleness and feeblemindedness were viewed as connected. Thus, support school pedagogy implemented specific measures, such as offering a daily milk breakfast, a weekly bath, and sex education, to strengthen the children in body and spirit. By compensating for the disadvantages brought on by poverty, special educators sought to create conditions conducive for learning and thus to protect and support their pupils.
Increasingly, however, support schools were founded in larger cities and industrial centres, and the advantages and disadvantages of such development was often discussed, especially in the first decade of the twentieth century see, e.
Simultaneously with the development of special education discourses, attempts to teach all children and prepare them for occupations began. At the Reich school conference Reichsschulkonferenz , special education achieved the status of a separate division of practitioners in a successful drive for recognition of their area of expertise, which resulted in enhanced autonomy and, ultimately, better pay than a number of other groups of teachers.
In Germany as elsewhere, this interpretation is still today a taken-for-granted disciplinary foundation. Psychological theories and measurement techniques have been and continue to be integrated into the discourse of learning disability. Who becomes classified and into which categories depends on those who identify, assess, diagnose, and classify pupils.
Present in the very early publications and debates, psychology developed into a major stream of the discourse of educational science into the s. Critics argued that the focus on the individual had hidden the collective social situation of this group within the class system of a capitalist society on the class basis of the learning disability category, see Begemann for Germany; Carrier for the United States.
They instead called for integration, based on the principle that all children can learn and grow, regardless of their social background. Some authors Hiller ; Klemm saw in educational expansion a negative aspect in that socially disadvantaged youth would have difficulty meeting the rising standards in schooling and vocational training. It is characterized by a weak client orientation and strong professional procedures and modes of operation based on psychological and medical diagnostics as part of scientific and professional procedures and a stalwart orientation to the organizational forms in the independent special school sector.
This resulted in the transfer of a group of pupils from support schools to these schools. In the s, once again with the parallel development of professional specialization and special school form, a specialty relating to behaviour and emotional disturbance was established. German general education and special education developed in parallel. However, both assume that by differentiating pupils by age and performance levels according to an ascribed innate quantity of talent Begabung , relatively homogenous classes can be formed and these offer the best possible learning conditions.
Selections from the Recommendation of the German Education Commission reflect this perspective dominated by different school forms as the appropriate response to differences in development of children and youth. As Barbara Sherman Heyl has emphasized, parental grass-roots organizations in Germany since the s attempted to counter the school segregation of their disabled children by establishing model school integration projects, but that wide-scale resistance to integration—the defence of special schools and cost considerations—hampered such efforts.
Then as now in Germany, inclusive educational policies face a host of barriers. Further, the interests of those who work in well-resourced schools and earn higher salaries than general schoolteachers hinder change, as does the lack of political will to redirect funding and professional talent from special schools to inclusive education programs.
Indeed, the institutional logic of dividing pupils among separate school types according to their ability level pervades the German educational system. By contrast, inclusive education calls such structures and functioning into question. The discussion centred around two questions: How to support more pupils to transition into vocational training and postsecondary education?
Is it wise to teach pupils with unequal achievement and different class background to a lesser extent, ethnic heritage in the same classroom? The thrust of this discussion aimed at delaying decisive educational choices of parents and pupils into the middle teenage years.
Detel, W. Published by Gesundheitspflege Initiat The number of correctly remembered words was measured as dependent variable. Sie einscha1tenlPrateritum sofort die Polizei. Der Franzose kocht gern und gut. This and earlier studies e. Kann sie als Beitrag zur Entwicklung von Expertise aufgenommen werden?
While this general debate raged, smaller groups of politicians, journalists, educational scientists, parents and activists attempted, and sometimes succeeded, to intervene in this discussion and to raise public awareness for the issue of special schools within the discussion on educational choice, inclusive education and human rights. A range of justifications for school integration and inclusive education has been prevalent in the discourse. Because of the ubiquitous segregation of disabled children and youth, fewer contacts and experiences are possible with peers, such that each new generation grows up with limited experience of the variety of human abilities.
This results in the over-representation of those social groups least able to self-advocate or challenge professional recommendations, namely poor children and many non-German children albeit with large differences by nationality and migration experience, see Gabel et al. Yet not only for economic reasons, but also for humanitarian reasons, every citizen should be provided with opportunities to contribute to and participate in society.
More diversity in schooling benefits all children. This structuration of schooling undergirds the illusion that the groups of pupils are homogenous, which also hinders the acknowledgment of individual differences and the pedagogical strategies and support to meet individual learning goals. This is the key to inclusive schooling, which assumes that each and every learner, with particular strengths, weaknesses, and experiences, will follow a particular developmental trajectory.
Yet even school integration would counter the traditional school system structure in Germany that reifies and reproduces existing class boundaries. This differentiation into segregated school types on the basis of social class background runs counter to meritocratic and to democratic ideals of equality see Solga Finally, social inclusion is neither a quality of utopian thought nor an object to be debated, but rather a primary responsibility of every democratic society.
Schooling, in which each new cohort is socialized and prepared for active citizenship, demands investment. Thus, education and social policy must be viewed in concert much more than they have been, with the three key areas of disability policy—oriented to compensation, rehabilitation, and participation—understood not as separate but as complementary and each addressing a relevant dimension of disablement and disability see Maschke The categories of the clinical disciplines were then integrated into institutionalized practices as they were applied to clients in existing organizations see Pfahl In Germany, this occurred along the lines of largely independent educational organizational forms.
Such a historical perspective, in which the facts and objectification of special education objects and terms are deconstructed, uncovers the taken-for-granted institutionalization of special schools—indeed, segregated schooling—and the discursive elements that led to their construction. The educational system is the social space in which the distribution of statements about pupils, teachers, administrators as well as about learning, success, failure, and performance coalesce. Phase I began after the establishment of compulsory education and at the start of a century of dramatic educational expansion at the end of the nineteenth century.
Teachers interested in social equality began to teach children from the strata of migrant workers and the Lumpenproletariat , which remained excluded from the modernized educational system of the Prussian monarchy. Growing beyond single organizations serving pupils with perceived impairments, special classes and schools were founded and the profession established it-self nationwide at the turn of the twentieth century.
In the second phase, during and after the post - WW II expansion, the profession succeeded in expanding university departments nationwide. Accordingly, the number of special education schools exploded tenfold in the s. At the same time, the national classification of special educational needs was differentiated and segregated special schooling was supplemented with a system of special vocational training. This was meant to organize the transition of special school leavers into a segregated and highly subsidized labour market, including vocational programs and workshop settings.
In the third phase, from the s onwards, a debate about integration and segregation began. While parents and politicians continued this conflict, a strong and entrenched scientific discourse, supported by the practitioners with their vested interests and drawing on both the ideology of innate ability and clinical thinking, dominated public discourse on student disabilities. The field of special education further expanded and cooperated across disciplines, co-founding the so-called science of rehabilitation Rehabilitationswissenschaften.
Here too, the academic development, research specialisations and department chairs were built along the existing school types. Teachers, largely through their influential professional associations, succeeded in exerting influence on politics and public administration and effectively articulated their interests in educating disabled pupils almost exclusively in segregated schools.
This theory assumes that mistakes play an important, up-to-now underestimated role in learning processes. By making mistakes, one would learn how something is not declarative , and how something is not to be done procedural , which means that one establishes negative knowledge. The latter helps to differentiate between "correct" and "incorrect", and results in a better memory and safer application of the correct. It follows from this that space and time have to be devoted to making mistakes and to dealing with them in learning and teaching processes. Does this theory also apply to the domain of instrumental and vocal learning?
Can it contribute to the development of expertise? The interviewees were willing to reflect on the topic of mistakes in teaching and reacted positively on the didactic aspect of the theory. Some weeks after the interview most of them even said that they had developed new teaching ways of dealing with mistakes, and that their students showed appreciation for this change. Concerning the theoretical assumption of the basic learning potential of mistakes, however, reservation was expressed by these same experts.
For example, a sequence played with the wrong fingering needs to be relearned even if played only once. Movement-related learning obviously immediately leaves a neuronal path; the experience of doing it incorrect is an obstacle rather than a door-opener on the way to the correct.
The act of playing follows this mental imprint rather than precedes it. Specialists of this method believe it is exactly this which outstanding talents and masters of music, be it knowingly or unknowingly, always did Orloff-Tschekorsky Mental training would then be a kind of deliberate practice which carries the characteristic of correcting mistakes on the mental level.
The conclusion is drawn that the theory of negative knowledge can only be applied with caution to the domain of instrumental and vocal learning; "low-mistake practice" is more promising. Minsky, M. Negative Expertise. Orloff-Tschekorsky, T. Oser, F.
Ist Fehlermachen erlaubt? Zu einer Theorie des gesteuerten Irrtums. Rothbucher, F. Donnenberg Eds. Salzburg:: O.
Lernen aus Fehlern. In: W.
Althof Ed. Vom Fehlermachen und vom Lernen aus Fehlern pp. Ziele: Wie genau kann sich ein Musiker einem vorgegebenen Stimmungssystem anpassen? Es existieren jedoch keine Intonationsstudien, die die Methode der Bedingungsvariation verwenden.
Versuchspersonen: Zwei Trompeter nahmen an der Studie teil. Einschwing- und Ausschwingteil jedes Tons wurden entfernt. Der Faktor "Spieler" zeigte keine signifikanten Unterschiede. Diskussion: Mit diesem Ergebnis lenken wir die Aufmerksamkeit weg von einer Fixierung auf das Instrument und hin auf den Spieler. Hier liegt ein deutlicher Trainingseffekt vor, denn die Anpassung an temperierte Instrumente wie z. Aims: How exact can a musician adapt himself to a given tuning-system?